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Over the next three centuries, they would leave their mark as pirates, raiders, traders and settlers on much of Britain and the European continent, as well as parts of modern-day Russia, Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland.
The exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was due to overpopulation of their homeland, but the earliest Vikings were looking for riches, not land.
In the eighth century A. Scandinavian furs were highly prized in the new trading markets; from their trade with the Europeans, Scandinavians learned about new sailing technology as well as about the growing wealth and accompanying inner conflicts between European kingdoms.
The Viking predecessors—pirates who preyed on merchant ships in the Baltic Sea—would use this knowledge to expand their fortune-seeking activities into the North Sea and beyond.
The culprits—probably Norwegians who sailed directly across the North Sea—did not destroy the monastery completely, but the attack shook the European religious world to its core.
Unlike other groups, these strange new invaders had no respect for religious institutions such as the monasteries, which were often left unguarded and vulnerable near the shore.
Two years later, Viking raids struck the undefended island monasteries of Skye and Iona in the Hebrides as well as Rathlin off the northeast coast of Ireland.
For several decades, the Vikings confined themselves to hit-and-run raids against coastal targets in the British Isles particularly Ireland and Europe the trading center of Dorestad, 80 kilometers from the North Sea, became a frequent target after They then took advantage of internal conflicts in Europe to extend their activity further inland: after the death of Louis the Pious, emperor of Frankia modern-day France and Germany , in , his son Lothar actually invited the support of a Viking fleet in a power struggle with brothers.
Before long other Vikings realized that Frankish rulers were willing to pay them rich sums to prevent them from attacking their subjects, making Frankia an irresistible target for further Viking activity.
By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids. When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.
In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.
In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.
Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.
The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.
However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods. This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.
Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.
They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.
Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops. The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.
The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.
The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality. There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies.
This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain. Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population.
Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, raiders, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries.
Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden.
Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial.
Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli. Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum.
A reconstructed longship. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.
Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet. Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.
Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.
Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.
Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.
Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.
Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed. Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.
Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.
Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.
Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.
Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Visby Sweden , n.
A companion to the Early Middle Ages. Who were the first vikings? Oslo: Universitetets oldsaksamling, UiO. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel. Viking-r, O. Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF.
Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Retrieved 20 April Skeat: Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.
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Saga-book of the Viking Society. University College London. Retrieved 15 April Ancient History Encyclopedia. Sweden History Tours. The Varangians of Byzantium.
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Evolution and Human Behavior. Archived from the original on 27 July Thorvald was killed by an arrow that succeeded in passing through the barricade.
Although brief hostilities ensued, the Norse explorers stayed another winter and left the following spring.
Subsequently, another of Leif's brothers, Thorstein, sailed to the New World to retrieve his dead brother's body, but he died before leaving Greenland.
In , Thorfinn Karlsefni , also known as "Thorfinn the Valiant", supplied three ships with livestock and men and women  although another source sets the number of settlers at After a cruel winter, he headed south and landed at Straumfjord.
He later moved to Straumsöy , possibly because the current was stronger there. A sign of peaceful relations between the indigenous peoples and the Norsemen is noted here.
The two sides bartered with furs and gray squirrel skins for milk and red cloth, which the natives tied around their heads as a sort of headdress.
There are conflicting stories but one account states that a bull belonging to Karlsefni came storming out of the wood, so frightening the natives that they ran to their skin-boats and rowed away.
They returned three days later, in force. The natives used catapults, hoisting "a large sphere on a pole; it was dark blue in color" and about the size of a sheep's belly,  which flew over the heads of the men and made an ugly din.
The Norsemen retreated. She called out to them to stop fleeing from "such pitiful wretches", adding that if she had weapons, she could do better than that.
She pulled one of her breasts out of her bodice and struck it with the sword, frightening the natives, who fled. Purported runestones have been found in North America, most famously the Kensington Runestone.
These are generally considered to be hoaxes or misinterpretations of Native American petroglyphs.
Monuments claimed to be Norse include: . Other nineteenth-century writers, such as Horsford's friend Thomas Gold Appleton , in his A Sheaf of Papers , and George Perkins Marsh , in his The Goths in New England , seized upon such false notions of Viking history also to promote the superiority of white people as well as to oppose the Catholic Church.
Such misuse of Viking history and imagery reemerged in the twentieth century among some groups promoting white supremacy.
Settlements in continental North America aimed to exploit natural resources such as furs and in particular lumber, which was in short supply in Greenland.
For centuries it remained unclear whether the Icelandic stories represented real voyages by the Norse to North America. The sagas first gained serious historic respectability in when the Danish antiquarian Carl Christian Rafn pointed out the possibility for a Norse settlement in, or voyages to, North America.
North America, by the name Winland , first appeared in written sources in a work by Adam of Bremen from approximately The most important works about North America and the early Norse activities there, namely the Sagas of Icelanders , were recorded in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The location of the various lands described in the sagas remains unclear, however. The location of Vinland poses a thornier question.
Archeological findings in at Point Rosee ,   on the southwest coast of Newfoundland, were originally thought to reveal evidence of a turf wall and the roasting of bog iron ore, and therefore a possible 10th century Norse settlement in Canada.
She also expressed doubt that Point Rosee was a Norse site as there are no good landing sites for their boats and there are steep cliffs between the shoreline and the excavation site.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: History of Greenland. The Vinland sagas: the Norse discovery of America. Penguin Classics. Retrieved Parks Canada.
February 18, . Hare, John Bruno ed. The Norse Discovery of America. Saga of Erik the Red. The first winter he was at Eriksey, nearly in the middle of the eastern settlement; the spring after repaired he to Eriksfjord, and took up there his abode.
He removed in summer to the western settlement, and gave to many places names. He was the second winter at Holm in Hrafnsgnipa, but the third summer went he to Iceland, and came with his ship into Breidafjord.
Journal of the North Atlantic. The Vikings and America. What was the name for the vikings before Vikings? Were there girl vikings?
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